Main Article Content



Massive Open Online Courses are emerged by the use of developing technologies for distance learning. With the aid of these systems, millions of people have an opportunity to attend academic lectures and obtain certificate. In recent years, most of the well known universities have supported these type of studies. Thus, number of open courses have been increased. In this study, specifically in context of Turkey, three most commonly used MOOC platforms evaluated the level of accessibility of localized MOOCs using automatic accessibility checking and provide some recommendations to improve its accessibility and usability.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Research Articles


Acedo, S. O., & Osuna, S. M. T., (2016), ECO European project: inclusive education through accessible MOOCs, In Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Technological Ecosystems for Enhancing Multiculturality, ACM, 881-886.
Acosta, T., Acosta-Vargas, P., Salvador-Ullauri, L., & Luján-Mora, S., (2018), Method for Accessibility Assessment of Online Content Editors, In International Conference on Information Theoretic Security, Springer, Cham, 538-551.
Al-Mouh, N. A., Al-Khalifa, A. S., & Al-Khalifa, H. S., (2014), A first look into MOOCs accessibility, In International Conference on Computers for Handicapped Persons, Springer, Cham., 145-152.
Allison, C., Miller, A., Oliver, I., Michaelson, R., & Tiropanis, T., (2012), The Web in education. Computer Networks, 56 (18), 3811-3824.
Anastasopoulos, N., & Baer, A. M., (2014), MOOCs: When opening doors to education, institutions must ensure that people with disabilities have equal access, Journal of Collective Bargaining in the Academy, (9), 39.
Aydin, C. H., (2017), Current Status of the MOOC Movement in the World and Reaction of the Turkish Higher Education Institutions, Open Praxis, 9 (1), 59-78.
Baker, P. M., Bujak, K. R., & DeMillo, R., (2012), The evolving university: Disruptive change and institutional innovation, Procedia Computer Science, 14, 330-335.
Bohnsack, M., & Puhl, S., (2014), Accessibility of MOOCs, In International Conference on Computers for Handicapped Persons, Springer, Cham., 141-144.
Bong, W. K., & Chen, W., (2016), How accessible are MOOCs to the elderly?. In International Conference on Computers Helping People with Special Needs, Springer, Cham., 437-444.
Burgstahler, S., (2001), Real Connections: Making Distance Learning Accessible to Everyone. [Accessed: 07.08.218)
Burgstahler, S., Corrigan, B., & McCarter, J., (2005), Steps toward making distance learning accessible to students and instructors with disabilities, Information Technology and Disabilities, 11 (1).
Buzzi, M. C., Buzzi, M., & Leporini, B., (2009), Accessing e-learning systems via screen reader: an example, In International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 21-30.
Bühler, C., & Fisseler, B., (2007), Accessible e-learning and educational technology-extending learning opportunities for people with disabilities, In Conference ICL2007, September 26-28, 2007, Kassel University Press.
Calle-Jimenez, T., Sanchez-Gordon, S., & Luján-Mora, S., (2014), Web accessibility evaluation of massive open online courses on geographical information systems, In Global Engineering Education Conference (EDUCON), 2014 IEEE, 680-686.
Carter, J., & Markel, M., (2001), Web accessibility for people with disabilities: An introduction for web developers, IEEE transactions on professional communication, 44(4), 225-233.
Chisholm, W., Vanderheiden, G., & Jacobs, I., (2001), Web content accessibility guidelines 1.0., Interactions, 8 (4), 35-54.
Colace, F., De Santo, M., & Mascambruno, P. R. C., (2007), E-Learning contents for people with disabilities: A standardized design approach. In Conference Proceeding ICTA’07, April 12-14, Hammamet, Tunisia, 109, (Vol. 114).
Coughlan, T., Rodriguez-Ascaso, A., Iniesto, F., & Jelfs, A., (2016), OLA! A scenario-based approach to enhance open learning through accessibility, In International Conference on Computers Helping People with Special Needs, Springer, Cham., 445-452.
Dias, S. B., & Diniz, J. A., (2013), From Blended to Inclusive Learning: Accessibility, Profiles, Openness, and Higher Education, J. UCS, 19 (18), 2722-2742.
Draffan, E. A., Wald, M., Dickens, K., Zimmermann, G., Kelle, S., Miesenberger, K., & Petz, A., (2015), Stepwise approach to accessible MOOC development, Studies in health technology and informatics, 217, 227.
Evans, S., (2009), E-learning and Blindness: evaluating the quality of the learning experience to inform policy and practice, Thesis (PhD), University of Birmingham.
Evans, S., & Douglas, G., (2008), E-learning and blindness: A comparative study of the quality of an e-learning experience, Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 102 (2), 77-88.
Farrelly, G., (2011), Practitioner barriers to diffusion and implementation of web accessibility, Technology and Disability, 23 (4), 223-232.
Ferati, M., Raufi, B., Kurti, A., & Vogel, B., (2014), Accessibility requirements for blind and visually impaired in a regional context: An exploratory study. In Usability and Accessibility Focused Requirements Engineering (UsARE), 2014 IEEE 2nd International Workshop on, IEEE, 13-16.
Ferati, M., Mripa, N., & Bunjaku, R., (2016), Accessibility of MOOCs for blind people in developing Non-English speaking countries. In Advances in Design for Inclusion, Springer, Cham., 519-528.
Fernández, C., Esteban, G., Conde, M. Á., & Rodríguez-Lera, F. J., (2016), ICT for older people to learn about ICT: application and evaluation. In International Conference on Learning and Collaboration Technologies, Springer, Cham., 292-302.
Fichten, C. S., Asuncion, J. V., Barile, M., Ferraro, V., & Wolforth, J., (2009), Accessibility of e-learning and computer and information technologies for students with visual impairments in postsecondary education, Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 103 (9), 543-557.
Fichten, C. S., Ferraro, V., Asuncion, J. V., Chwojka, C., Barile, M., Nguyen, M. N., & Wolforth, J., (2009), Disabilities and e-learning problems and solutions: An exploratory study, Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 12 (4), 241-256.
Gaebel, M., (2013), MOOCs Massive open online courses, EUA Occasional papers.
Grooves, K., (2013), Choosing an automated accessibility testing tool: 13 questions you should ask. In International Technology and Persons with Disabilities Conference.
Guenaga, M. L., Burger, D., & Oliver, J., (2004), Accessibility for e-learning environments. In International Conference on Computers for Handicapped Persons, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 157-163.
Gupta, P., & Fatima, S., (2016), Massive Online Course for Deaf and Dumb People. In Proceedings of the 21st Western Canadian Conference on Computing Education, ACM, 21.
Herman, R., (2012), The MOOCs are coming, The Journal of Effective Teaching, 12 (2), 1-3.
Holdaway, X., & Hawtin, N., (2015), Major players in the MOOC Universe, The Chronicle of Higher Education,, [Accessed: 11.07.2018].
Iniesto, F., & Rodrigo, C., (2014), Accessibility assessment of MOOC platforms in Spanish: UNED COMA, COLMENIA and Miriada X, In Computers in Education (SIIE), 2014 International Symposium on, IEEE, 169-172.
Iniesto, F., Rodrigo, C., & Moreira Teixeira, A., (2014), Accessibility analysis in MOOC platforms. A case study: UNED COMA and UAbiMOOC, V Congreso Internacional sobre Calidad y Accesibilidad de la Formación Virtual (CAFVIR 2014), 545-550.
Iniesto, F., & Rodrigo, C., (2015), Accessible user profile modeling for academic services based on MOOCs, In Proceedings of the XVI International Conference on Human Computer Interaction Vilanova i la Geltrú, Spain — September 07 - 09, 2015, ACM, Article No:55.
Iniesto, F., McAndrew, P., Minocha, S., & Coughlan, T., (2016), Accessibility of MOOCs: Understanding the Provider Perspective, Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 2016 (1), 20.
Iniesto, F., McAndrew, P., Minocha, S., & Coughlan, T., (2016), The current state of accessibility of MOOCs: What are the next steps?, In: Open Education Global Conference 2016, 12-14 Apr 2016, Krakow, Poland, 1-7.
Iniesto, F., & Rodrigo, C., (2016), Strategies for improving the level of accessibility in the design of MOOC-based learning services, In Computers in Education (SIIE), 2016 International Symposium on, IEEE, 1-6.
Iniesto, F., & Rodrigo, C., (2016), A preliminary study for developing accessible MOOC Services, Journal of accessibility and design for all, 6 (2), 126-150.
Johnson, A., & Ruppert, S., (2002), An evaluation of accessibility in online learning management systems, Library Hi Tech., 20 (4), 441-451.
Kay, J., Reimann, P., Diebold, E., & Kummerfeld, B., (2013), MOOCs: So many learners, so much potential, IEEE Intelligent Systems, 28 (3), 70-77.
Kelle, S., Henka, A., & Zimmermann, G., (2015), A persona-based extension for massive open online courses in accessible design, Procedia Manufacturing, 3, 3663-3668.
Luján Mora, S., (2013), Web Accessibility Among the countries of the European Union: a comparative study, Actual Problems of Computer Science, No. 1(3), 18-27.
Martín-Monje, E., & Bárcena, E. (Eds.), (2015), Language MOOCs: providing learning, transcending boundaries, Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG.
Martin, J. L., Amado-Salvatierra, H. R., & Hilera, J. R., (2016), MOOCs for all: Evaluating the accessibility of top MOOC platforms, International Journal of Engineering Education, 32 (5), 2274-2283.
Ngubane-Mokiwa, S. A., (2016), Accessibility strategies for making MOOCs for people with visual impairments: A Universal Design for Learning (UDL) perspective, In 8th Pan-Commonwealth Forum on Open Learning (PCF8). Open, Online and Flexible Learning: The key to sustainable development.
Park, K., Kim, H. J., & So, H. J., (2016), Are Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) Really Open to Everyone?: A Study of Accessibility Evaluation from the Perspective of Universal Design for Learning, In Proceedings of HCI Korea, Hanbit Media, Inc., 29-36.
Parr, C., (2013), Mooc creators criticise courses’ lack of creativity: Original vision lost in scramble for profit and repackaging of old ideas, say pair, Times Higher Education, October, 1.
Parry, M., (2010), Online, bigger classes may be better classes, Chronicle of Higher Education, 57 (2), A1-A22.
Espada, J. P., Rodríguez, C. C., García-Díaz, V., & Crespo, R. G., (2014), Method for analysing the user experience in MOOC platforms. In Computers in Education (SIIE), 2014 International Symposium on, IEEE, 157-162.
Rizzardini, R. H., Chang, V., Gütl, C., & Amado-Salvatierra, H., (2013), An open online course with accessibility features, In EdMedia: World Conference on Educational Media and Technology, Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), 635-643.
Rodrigo, C., & Iniesto, F., (2015), Holistic vision for creating accessible services based on MOOCs, In: Open Education Global Conference 2015. Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 22-24 Apr 2015, Banff, Alberta, Canada.
Rodriguez‐Ascaso, A., Boticario, J. G., Finat, C., & Petrie, H., (2017), Setting accessibility preferences about learning objects within adaptive elearning systems: User experience and organizational aspects, Expert Systems, 34 (4), 1-12.
Sánchez-Gordon, S., & Luján-Mora, S., (2013), Web accessibility of MOOCs for elderly students, In 12th International Conference on Information Technology Based Higher Education and Training (Ithet 2013), 1-6.
Sánchez Gordón, S., & Luján Mora, S., (2013), Accessibility considerations of massive online open courses as creditable courses in engineering programs, Proceedings of the 6th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation (ICERI 2013), Seville (Spain), November 18-20 2013, 5853-5862.
Sánchez Gordón, S., & Luján Mora, S., (2014), Web accessibility requirements for massive open online courses, In Proceedings, International Conference on Quality and Accessibility of Virtual Learning, 530-535.
Sánchez-Gordon, S., & Luján-Mora, S., (2014), MOOCs gone wild, In Proceedings of the 8th International Technology, Education and Development Conference (INTED 2014), 1449-1458.
Sánchez Gordón, S., & Luján Mora, S., (2015), Adaptive content presentation extension for open edX. Enhancing MOOCs accessibility for users with disabilities, The Eighth International Conference on Advances in Computer-Human Interactions (ACHI 2015), Lisbon (Portugal), February 22-27 2015, 181-183.
Sánchez-Gordon, S., Calle-Jimenez, T., & Lujan-Mora, S., (2015), Relevance of MOOCs for training of public sector employees, In Information Technology Based Higher Education and Training (ITHET), 2015 International Conference on, IEEE, 1-5.
Sánchez-Gordon, S., & Luján-Mora, S., (2015), An ecosystem for corporate training with accessible MOOCs and OERs, In MOOCs, Innovation and Technology in Education (MITE), 2015 IEEE 3rd International Conference on, IEEE, 123-128.
Sánchez-Gordon, S., & Luján-Mora, S., (2015), Accessible blended learning for non-native speakers using MOOCs. In Interactive Collaborative and Blended Learning (ICBL), 2015 International Conference on, IEEE, 19-24.
Sánchez-Gordon, S., & Luján Mora, S., (2016), How could MOOCs become accessible? The case of edX and the future of inclusive online learning, Journal of Universal Computer Science, 22 (1), 55-81.
Sánchez-Gordon, S., Estevez, J., & Luján-Mora, S., (2016), Editor for accessible images in e-Learning platforms. In Proceedings of the 13th Web for All Conference, ACM, 14.
Sánchez-Gordon, S., & Luján-Mora, S., (2016), Design, implementation and evaluation of MOOCs to improve inclusion of diverse learners, In User-centered design strategies for massive open online courses (MOOCs), IGI Global, 115-141.
Sánderson, N. C., Chen, W., Bong, W. K., & Kessel, S., (2016), The Accessibility of MOOC Platforms from Instructors’ Perspective. In International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction, Springer, Cham., 124-134.
Santos, O. C., Boticario, J. G., & Pérez-Marín, D., (2014), Extending web-based educational systems with personalised support through User Centred Designed recommendations along the e-learning life cycle, Science of Computer Programming, 88, 92-109.
Seale, J., (2006), E-learning and disability in higher education: accessibility research and practice. Routledge.
Singleton, K., & Clark, K., (2013), Re-defining accessibility when it comes to MOOCs. George Mason University.
Stokes, P., (2013), The particle accelerator of learning. Inside Higher Ed, 22.
van Rooij, S. W., & Zirkle, K., (2016), Balancing pedagogy, student readiness and accessibility: A case study in collaborative online course development, The Internet and Higher Education, 28, 1-7.
Vigo, M., Brown, J., & Conway, V., (2013), Benchmarking web accessibility evaluation tools: measuring the harm of sole reliance on automated tests. In Proceedings of the 10th International Cross-Disciplinary Conference on Web Accessibility, ACM, 1.
Voss, B. D., (2013), Massive open online courses (MOOCs): A primer for university and college board members, AGB Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges.
Wang, Y., & Baker, R., (2015), Content or platform: Why do students complete MOOCs, MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 11 (1), 17-30.
Watling, S., (2011), Digital exclusion: coming out from behind closed doors, Disability & Society, 26 (4), 491-495.
Wentz, B., Jaeger, P. T., & Lazar, J., (2011), Retrofitting accessibility: The legal inequality of after-the-fact online access for persons with disabilities in the United States, First Monday, 16 (11),
Yousef, A. M. F., Chatti, M. A., Schroeder, U., & Wosnitza, M., (2015), A usability evaluation of a blended MOOC environment: An experimental case study, The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 16 (2), 69-93.
Yuan, L., Powell, S., & CETIS, J., (2013), MOOCs and open education: Implications for higher education, Cetis White Paper. Retrieved from: [Accessed: 10.June.2018]
W3C, “Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0.”, 2008. Available online: [Accessed: 10 June 2018].
W3C, “Introduction to Web Accessibility”, 2012. Available online: [Accessed: 10 June 2018].
W3C, [Accessed: 10 June 2018].
World Wide Web Consortium, Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0. https:// [Accessed: 10 June 2018].