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Algae involve several species of multicellular and macroscopic marine algae found in the coastal region between high to low tide in the sub-tidal region up to a depth where 0.01 % photosynthetic light is available. Based on their pigmentation, seaweeds were classified in to Chlorophyta (green algae), Phaeophyta (Brown algae) and Rhodophyta (Red algae). Algae are not classified as true plants. They lack an organized vascular system for absorbing nutrients. The root called the holdfast, the stem is the stripe and the leaf of the seaweed is the blade or frond. Like flowering plants, they are able to use chlorophyll to conduct the process of photosynthesis and create their own food for growth.
In marine ecosystems, macroalgae communities provide nutrition, reproduction, and an accommodating environment for other living organisms. Algae play a vital role in various aspects compared to other aquatic resources. Because of these properties, macroalgae are some of the most important organisms maintaining the ecosystem’s stability. They are also excellent source of bioactive compounds such as carotenoids, dietary fibers, proteins, essential fatty acids, vitamins, minerals and important sources of medicines and fertilizers.
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